and C2 is the electrical conductivity after the leaves were, chloride (TTC) method, as described by Joslin and, mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). G. sinensis seedlings with and without AMF inoculation were subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl). Foliage of ‘Drake’ Chinese Elm. Zelkova is closely related to elms, but it is resistant to Dutch elm disease. Under conditions of salinity, the lower R: FR value caused a decrease in both the superoxide anion (O2•−) and in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, an increase in the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.7). area. Values are mean ± SE of three plants. HHS However, the greatest increases in growth and tolerance to salinity occurred in the isolated presence of AMF. Moreover, the AM fungus improved the ac-, tivities of antioxidants such as SOD, POD, CA, GSH concentration in leaves, and enhanced SOD and. Tomato seedlings were exposed to different R: FR conditions (7.4, 1.2 and 0.8) under salinity stress (100 mM NaCl), and evaluated for their growth, biochemical changes, active reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenging enzymes, pigments, rate of photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence. publications have reported the effects of AMF on tree species, while many studies have reported that AMF could improve salt, resistance of crops such as castor bean (, above- (e.g., leaf) and below-ground (e.g., root) or, plants. Similar results also have been reported by other re-, in plants is considered a characteristic feature of salt, binding sites that are essential for various metabolic, ratio in AM seedlings noted in the present study indi-, tissues of AM seedlings might have helped to maintain, contributing to higher leaf Chl concentrations and thus, ratios in the roots of AM seedlings than those in NM, seedlings under saline conditions indicated that the AM, roots. on POD activity is higher in roots than that in leaves; in contrast, the regulatory effect of seedlings on SOD. Makino. [Mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the oxidative stress to the host plants under salt stress: A review]. The K content in roots showed a steeper, ). To reveal the different mechanisms, our study utilized comprehensive analyses of leaves and roots to examine the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on the salinity tolerance of Zelkova serrata. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant). Beskrivelse Zelkova serrata 'Fastigiata' Unlike the species, ‘Fastigiata’ is a medium-size to large tree with a columnar crown which retains its shape when mature. Moreover, at the individual plant level, is characterized by a high ecological value owing to. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the supply of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) could alleviate the negative effects of such stress by improvement in stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and biomass. Comparative Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Under Salt Str... Physiological mechanism of enhancing salinity tolerance of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions, Mitigation of Salinity Stress in Plants by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Current Understanding and New Challenges, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve plant growth of Ricinus communis by altering photosynthetic properties and increasing pigments under drought and salt stress, Spore associated bacteria regulates maize root K+/Na+ ion homeostasis to promote salinity tolerance during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, Exposure to lower red to far-red light ratios improve tomato tolerance to salt stress, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Modulates Antioxidant Response and Ion Distribution in Salt-Stressed Elaeagnus angustifolia Seedlings, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Alleviates Salt Stress in Black Locust through Improved Photosynthesis, Water Status, and K+/Na+ Homeostasis. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and foliar phosphorus inorganic supply alleviate salt stress effects in physiological attributes, but only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase biomass in woody species of a semiarid environment, Carrying capacity in heterogeneous environments with habitat connectivity. Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell killing, and inducers of apoptosis are commonly used in cancer therapy. After 2 days in the normal nutrient solution, the plants showed improvements in antioxidant and glyoxalase system activities, followed by improvements in plant growth, water balance, and chlorophyll synthesis. A Zelkova serrata in Placerville is registered as a California Big Tree. This Volume is divided into six sections. Mycorrhiza. Phonetic Spelling ULM-us par-vi-FO-li-ah Description. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. The fruit of Ulmus are dry and winged, while Zelkova has drupes. This study suggests that the beneficial effects of AM symbiosis on the photosynthetic capacity, water status, and K+/Na+ homeostasis lead to the improved growth performance and salt tolerance of black locust exposed to salt stress. Notably, the effects of the AM fungus on, ), but only increased the activities of SOD, CA, ). Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) view showed that SAB were able to move and localize into inter- and intracellular spaces of maize roots and were closely associated with the spore outer hyaline layer. Makino were investigated in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.The results revealed that the essential oil of Z. serrata heartwood exhibited great radical scavenging activities and high total phenolic content. Antioxidant Activities and Reduced Amyloid-β Toxicity of 7-Hydroxycalamenene Isolated from the Essential Oil of Zelkova serrata Heartwood. These results suggest that AM fungus inoculation improved salinity tolerance of Z. serrata, but the physiological mechanisms differed between leaves and roots. The bark provides winter interest as exfoliation leaves irregular spots of orange, gray, green and brown. To reveal the different mechan, isms, our study utilized comprehensive analyses, were exposed to four salt levels in a greenhouse with and without, inoculation, (1) nutrient deficiency cause, d by osmotic stress was mitigated by the fungus, K, Ca, and Mg) in leaves, with Ca and K contents being higher, enhanced catalase activity and reduced gluta. POD activities and AsA concentration in roots. is a valuable tree species with various phamaceutical uses; however, high soil NaCl, Salinity is the primary restriction factor for vegetation conservation and the rehabilitation of coastal areas in Eastern China. The tree is related to the elm (Ulmus) but is different in that the flowers of Zelkova are unisexual and of Ulmus are hermaphroditic. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Nutrient Uptake of Zelkova se... Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Effectively Enhances the Growth of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Mycorrhizal associations are common in almost all eco­ systems and 80 % of all land plants associate with these mutualistic soil fungi. AMF effectively enhanced the salinity tolerance of G. sinensis seedlings by enhancing leaf gas exchanges inducing higher leaf net photosynthetic rates; improving peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities resulting in higher membrane stability indexes and lower malondialdehyde contents in leaves and roots; increasing P uptake and P/N ratio to mitigate P-limited biomass products; selectively absorbing less Na + and more Ca 2+ in their tissues to alleviate ion toxicity and maintain more favorable ion balances (e.g., K + /Na + ) in their tissues.Conclusions Zelkova serrata is valued for its attractive manner of growth and the dark green leaves that turn to various shades of red and orange in the autumn. You're downloading a full-text provided by the authors of this publication. 18 m high and 12 m wide, with a broad, vase-shaped, semi-open crown. The capacity of plants to maintain a high cytosolic K + /Na + ratio is one of the key determinants of plant salt tolerance. However, physiological mechanisms of enhanced salt tolerance in leaves and roots of trees rarely have been compared. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enhance plant salt tolerance. Molecular studies in past one decade have further elucidated the processes involved in amelioration of salt stress in mycorrhizal plants. The Z. serrata seedlings inoculated with three AMF strains (Funneliformis mosseae 1, Funneliformis mosseae 2, and Diversispora tortuosa) were subjected to two salt treatments (0 and 100 mM NaCl) under greenhouse conditions. The nursery substrates, oculum, while the NM group was filled with 2.5 kg of, during that period six times received modified Hoagland, ing from 10 to 14 h, and a mid-day photos, to 50-, 100-, and 150-mM NaCl, respectively. Epub 2013 Dec 17. Further research is needed to determine whether the effects can be reproduced in a forest situation. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. Means topped by the same letter do not differ significantly (P < 0.05) by Tukey’s honestly significant difference test, of the roles of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Funneliformis mosseae, in alleviating salt-induced adverse effects on Z. serrata seedlings. After Dutch elm disease wiped out most of the majestic American elms, landscape architects began searching for a disease-resistant alternative. (Fabaceae) is a precious ecological and economic tree species that has wide-ranging usage. roots under saline conditions. A preview of this full-text is provided by Springer Nature. tive and growth-promoting effects of AMF under salt, stress have been reported on many tree species, decreased with increasing NaCl levels. Saline soil used had an electrical conductivity (EC) of 6.70 dS/m, while the garden soil had an EC of 0.29 dS/m. 2020 Oct;31(10):3589-3596. doi: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202010.040. One of the best examples is the mycorrhizal symbio­ sis between plants and fungi. Upward arrows indicate an increase and downward arrows a decrease relative to seedlings without mycorrhizas. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Antifungal potential evaluation and alleviation of salt stress in tomato seedlings by a halotolerant plant growth-promoting actinomycete Streptomyces sp. García-Sánchez M, Palma JM, Ocampo JA, García-Romera I, Aranda E. J Plant Physiol. BR application resulted in increased relative water content, nitrate reductase activity, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis under both conditions. Mycorrhizal seedlings not only significantly increased their ability to acquire K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, but also maintained higher K+:Na+ ratios in the leaves and lower Ca2+:Mg2+ ratios than non-mycorrhizal seedlings during salt stress. KLBMP5084 has the potential as the biological fertilizer for promoting the tomato seedlings growth under salinity stress. NM represents plants without F. mosseae inoculation; AM represents plants with F. mosseae inoculation.  |  The results showed that the three AMF strains had positive effects, to a certain extent, on plant growth and photosynthesis under normal condition. The AM fungus caused a higher increase in the K con-, tents in roots than those in leaves under saline condi-, tions, and the average increase in K content in leaves. Tarokoensis. Keywords: Chinese elm is a large deciduous shade tree in the Ulmaceae family. Inoculation with mycorrhiza alone or together with PM increased the minerals in the two test plants both in saline and non-saline treatments. MACRO cube, Elementar Trading Shanghai, Shanghai, tion of P was measured by an ammonium molybdate blue. However, knowledge regarding seedling cultivation (especially the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)) is scarce, which limits the developent of Gleditsia plantations. The fruit of Ulmus are dry and winged, while Zelkova has drupes. Noteworthy Characteristics. Results demonstrated that the fermentation broth and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of strain KLBMP5084 could inhibit a variety of plant pathogenic fungi, including tomato early blight disease pathogenic fungi Alter-naria solani. AM fungus enhanced the contents of nutrients in leaves, differently than those in roots. Zelkova serrata is valued for its attractive manner of growth and the dark green leaves that turn to various shades of red and orange in the autumn. Overall, the higher root ion ratios (K, ) were greater in leaves than those in roots, which, might be because leaves are the sites of photosynthesis. Results Z. serrata is a deciduous tree that in the wild can reach a height in excess of 30m (100ft +) and is favoured for its ornamental characteristics. The experiment was conducted in a factorial design considering two levels of salinity (+NaCl and -NaCl), two levels of AMF (+AMF and -AMF) and two levels of leaf Pi supply (+Pi and -Pi). Genes involved in the photosynthesis-antenna proteins pathway, isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, zeatin biosynthesis and protein processing of endoplasmic reticulum pathway were enriched to the highest degree , indicating their significance and effects in response to salt stress in tomato seedlings. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Salt stress affects plant growth and crop yield reduction, thus how to improve the salt tolerance of plants is full of challenges. The fourth section shows the multi­ trophic nature of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Numerous studies have shown that plants inoculated, with AMF exhibited higher biomass and salt tolerance. This research investigated whether different R: FR values affect tomato growth response and salinity tolerance. The trunk is usually branched low down with several sturdy main branches slanting upwards. decreased with increasing salinity levels, but AM fungus, inoculation increased the Ca contents in leaves and, and increased the Mg contents by an average of 34%, the Ca contents in leaves were higher than those in. Mitigation of Salinity Stress in Plants by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Current Understanding and New Challenges. Comparative physiological mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects on leaves and roots of Zelkova serrata Mycorrhiza . The concentration of. KLBMP5084 inoculation also increased the contents of K + and Ca 2+ , reduced the Na + accumulation in leaf. for application in coastal afforestation. To reveal the different mechanisms, our study utilized comprehensive analyses of leaves and roots to examine the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on the salinity tolerance of Zelkova serrata. All the treatments were significantly better than the untreated control. A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to estimate the, This research investigated the influence of inoculating Telfairia occidentalis and Cucurbita maxima with arbuscular mycorrhizas (Rhizophagus irregularis and Glomus geosporum) with poultry manure in Na + /K + ratio adjustment and plant mineral nutrition. Named after a city within Tokyo, Japan, this narrow, upright tree is very symmetrical and a perfect candidate for formal settings. 18 m high and 12 m wide, with a broad, vase-shaped, semi-open crown. However, the physiological mechanism of AMF in mitigating adverse impact caused by salinity stress in different tissues of woody plants is not clear. The tree is related to the elm (Ulmus) but is different in that the flowers of Zelkova are unisexual and of Ulmus are hermaphroditic. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been proved to have the ability to alleviate salt stress in plants. Zelkova carpinifolia 'Verschaffeltii' – Zelkova carpinifolia 'Verschaffeltii' Medium-size tree that at first sight resembles Z. carpinifolia, but is significantly smaller. l analysis. These new findings indicate that co-inoculation of AMF and SAB effectively alleviates the detrimental effects of salinity through regulation of SOS pathway gene expression and K+/Na+ homeostasis to improve maize plant growth. Japanese Zelkova is a tough urban tree for residential shade and street plantings. Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi depends on the rootstock salt tolerance. It also discusses factors that influence the diversity and structure of mycorrhizal fungal communities. Makino, a tree species with significant potential for afforestation of coastal area. Values are mean ± SE of six plants. AM plants also displayed a significant increase in the relative water content and an evident decrease in the shoot/root ratio of Na+ in the presence of 200 mM NaCl compared with NM plants. Importantly, co-inoculation significantly reduced the accumulation of proline in shoots and Na+ in roots. Effect of homobrassinolide application on plant metabolism and grain yield under irrigated and moisture stress conditions of two wheat varieties. Japanese Zelkova Zelkova serrata. KLBMP5084, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Effectively Enhances the Growth of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Zelkova serrata is valued for its attractive manner of growth and the dark green leaves that turn to various shades of red and orange in the autumn. The leaf GSH concen-, tration increased 22% by AM fungus inoculation across the three. However, physiological mechanisms of enhanced salt tolerance in leaves and roots of trees rarely have been compared. 2700, DAOJIN) at 532, 600, and 450 nm (Hessini et al. Spotted lanternfly is actually not a fly, but a planthopper of the family Fulgoridae, also referred to as “spot clothing wax cicada” or “Chinese blistering cicada” in the literature. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Despite the implications of the result to ecology, it was never tested until recent experiments with a microbial system. Carrying capacity, or the steady-state upper limit on a population’s abundance, has been a key concept in wildlife management for a century. On the other hand, excessive Na+ uptake induced ionic stress which resulted in a lower content of other minerals (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), and a reduction in photosynthetic pigment synthesis and plant growth. It has a spreading, generally upright branching, vase-shaped habit. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. To reveal the different mechanisms, our study utilized comprehensive analyses of leaves and roots to examine the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on the salinity tolerance of Zelkova serrata. These beneficial effects resulted in higher leaf area, biomass production, grain yield and yield related parameters in the treated plants. Means topped by the same letter do not differ significantly (P < 0.05) by Tukey’s honestly significant difference test, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Lu Zhai, All content in this area was uploaded by Lu Zhai on May 11, 2020, Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enhance plan, of leaves and roots to examine the effects of, enhancing nutrient contents (K, Ca, and Mg) in roo, regulatory effect was higher in leaves than that in roots; and (3) oxidative damage was redu, antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of antioxidan, photosynthetic rate, and dry weight were higher in seedlings with AM fungus inoculation. Effects of NaCl levels and AM fungus inoculation treatments on N and P contents of Z. serrata seedlings. These results indicate that arbuscular mycorrhization is beneficial for the growth of young G. sinensis plants. Under saline conditions, AM fungi significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate, quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and K+ content in plants, but evidently reduced the Na+ content. However, the role of AMF in relieving salt stress among indigenous trees species is less well known, limiting the application of AMF in the afforestation of local, The Chinese honey locust tree Gleditsia sinensis Lam. CX (17) 004/Jiangsu Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Fund, 201504406/National Special Fund for Forestry Scientific Research in the Public Interest, PAPD/Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, 2169125/Doctorate Fellowship Foundation of Nanjing Forestry University. ). 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